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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 42-55

Colorectal cancer screening guidelines for Nigeria in 2019

1 Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
2 Department of Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
3 Department of Pathology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana
4 Department of Radiology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
5 Department of Radiotherapy, University of Benin, Benin, Nigeria
6 Division of Gastroenterology, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Olusegun Isaac Alatise
Department of Surgery, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, PMB 5538, Ile-Ife
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJGH.NJGH_15_20

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. The incidence is rising, and majority of the patients diagnosed with CRC, die of the disease burden. CRC is an ideal cancer for screening and early detection. It has been well documented that screening for CRC, by a variety of methods, leads to a sustained reduction in mortality from the disease in two ways: increased detection of early stage with more curable cancer and detection and removal of adenomas, which are known precursors to CRC. Screening has also been shown to be cost-effective in terms of quality-adjusted life-years gained compared to nonscreening. CRC screening can be approached as an organized program or on an opportunistic basis. Opportunistic screening is the only option in systems that lack the resources, infrastructure, and framework needed for an organized approach. A myriad of CRC screening tests exist, which can be divided into two main categories namely biological sample-based tests, which include fecal, blood, and urine tests, and colonic structure-based tests, which include flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and imaging studies such as computed tomography colonography, magnetic resonance imaging colonography, and double-contrast barium enema. The recommendation for CRC screening includes offering patients the opportunity to select test, based on their preference, affordability, and test availability. This decision-making process is personalized and requires an understanding between the patient and doctor. This guideline reviews the available evidence and makes recommendation on the screening method for CRC in Nigeria.

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