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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 50-55

Spectrum of histological diagnoses among clinically suspected PLCC patients in a Nigerian teaching hospital

1 Department of Pathology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria
3 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan/University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Samuel Olawale Ola
Department of Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJGH.NJGH_18_20

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Background and Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common rapidly growing tumor with poor outcomes and hence requires precise, accurate, and timely diagnosis for early intervention. Although it may be suspected clinically and by imaging investigation such as ultrasound scan (USS) of the liver, there are insufficient data correlating these two modalities with histological diagnosis. This study aims at determining the relevance of liver biopsy in the diagnostic confirmation of HCC in clinically suspected Nigerian patients. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 105 clinically diagnosed Nigerian patients with HCC who had liver biopsy between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2017 at the GIT/liver Unit of UCH, Ibadan. After securing the appropriate ethical clearance from the UI/UCH Ibadan ERC, relevant data were collected from patients' Pathology Departmental records and analyzed using appropriate statistical instruments. Results: There were 105 cases of clinically diagnosed HCC patients, 45 of which had imaging (USS/or computerized tomography scan) diagnosis. The mean age of the patients was 44 ± 14.8 years, ranging from 0.25 to 85 years. They consisted of 69 males and 36 females with M:F ratio of 1.9:1. Histological diagnosis was not ascertained in 8 cases (7.6%), while 97 cases (92.4%) had varied diagnoses. Malignant neoplasms, benign neoplasms, liver dysplasia, and nonneoplastic liver diseases were established in 74.1%, 2%, 9.6%, and 14.5% of cases, respectively. Primary liver cancers accounted for 62.8% of cases and included HCC (59.8%), cholangiocarcinoma (1%), hepatoblastoma (1%), and NHL (1%). The sensitivities of clinical and USS diagnoses were 100% and 93%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for USS were 65.1% and 0%, respectively. The overall clinical and USS diagnostic accuracies for HCC were 59.8% and 62.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The clinical accuracy for the diagnosis of HCC among clinically suspected and USS diagnosed HCC is limited in comparison to histological diagnosis by liver biopsy. Hence there should be the utilization of liver biopsies for confirmation of HCC in such suspected Nigerian patients.

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