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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 65-68

Alarm features for predicting significant endoscopic findings among patients with dyspepsia in Cameroon


1 Internal Medicine and Specialities Department, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon; Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Yaoundé General Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon
2 Clinic Sciences Department, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutic Sciences of the University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon
3 Radiology and Medical Imagery Department, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon
4 Hepatogastroenterology Unit, Yaoundé General Hospital, Yaoundé, Cameroon
5 Higher Institute of Translation, Interpretation, and Communication, University of Buea, Buea, Cameroon
6 Internal Medicine and Specialities Department, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon

Correspondence Address:
Antonin Wilson Ndjitoyap Ndam
Internal Medicine and Specialities Department, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences of the University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé
Cameroon
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njgh.njgh_11_22

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Introduction: Dyspepsia is the major indication for gastroscopy in sub-Saharan Africa. However, endoscopic devices are not available in rural areas, and the examination is invasive and expensive for the rural populations. The aim of this study is to assess the predictive value of some alarm features in the prediction of endoscopic findings among adult patients with dyspepsia in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: We carried out a retrospective study using all reports of patients who underwent gastroscopy for dyspeptic syndrome from July 1 to December 31, 2021 at the Yaoundé General Hospital, Cameroon. We documented the sociodemographic characteristics, clinical signs, the type of dyspepsia, and endoscopic findings. We also documented alarm features associated with significant pathology (presence of an ulcer and/or a malignant tumor) at the endoscopy. Results: Of the 310 gastroscopies, dyspeptic symptoms represented 226 indications (72.9%). There were 90 males (39.8%). The mean age was 46.4 ± 15.9 years (range 16–86). Signs associated with dyspepsia were gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in 8 patients (3.5%), weight loss in 6 patients (2.7%), and persistent vomiting in 13 patients (5.8%). A significant endoscopy finding was observed among 53 patients (23.5%). On the univariate analysis, alarm features associated with a significant lesion were male gender (P = 0.004), persistent vomiting (P = 0.047), and marginally for GI bleeding (P = 0.072). On the multivariate analysis, only the male gender was significantly associated with the presence of a significant lesion (P = 0.024). Conclusions: Our results show that the male gender, GI bleeding, and persistent vomiting are alarm features associated with the presence of a significant lesion among patients with dyspepsia.


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