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REVIEW ARTICLE
Colorectal cancer screening guidelines for Nigeria in 2019
Olusegun Isaac Alatise, Olalekan Olasehinde, Abdulfatai Bamidele Olokoba, Babatunde M Duduyemi, Olusola C Famurewa, Oludare F Adeyemi, Elugwaraonu A Agbakwuru, AW Asombang
July-December 2019, 11(2):42-55
DOI:10.4103/NJGH.NJGH_15_20  
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health issue in Nigeria. The incidence is rising, and majority of the patients diagnosed with CRC, die of the disease burden. CRC is an ideal cancer for screening and early detection. It has been well documented that screening for CRC, by a variety of methods, leads to a sustained reduction in mortality from the disease in two ways: increased detection of early stage with more curable cancer and detection and removal of adenomas, which are known precursors to CRC. Screening has also been shown to be cost-effective in terms of quality-adjusted life-years gained compared to nonscreening. CRC screening can be approached as an organized program or on an opportunistic basis. Opportunistic screening is the only option in systems that lack the resources, infrastructure, and framework needed for an organized approach. A myriad of CRC screening tests exist, which can be divided into two main categories namely biological sample-based tests, which include fecal, blood, and urine tests, and colonic structure-based tests, which include flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, and imaging studies such as computed tomography colonography, magnetic resonance imaging colonography, and double-contrast barium enema. The recommendation for CRC screening includes offering patients the opportunity to select test, based on their preference, affordability, and test availability. This decision-making process is personalized and requires an understanding between the patient and doctor. This guideline reviews the available evidence and makes recommendation on the screening method for CRC in Nigeria.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A Southwest Nigerian tertiary hospital 5-year study of the pattern of liver disease admission
Olusegun Adekanle, Oluwasegun Ijarotimi, Emmanuel Obasi, Nnenna Grace Anthony-Nwojo, Dennis A Ndububa
January-June 2020, 12(1):18-23
DOI:10.4103/NJGH.NJGH_7_20  
Background: Liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Its pattern varies with different geographical locations and these variations are determined by lifestyle, environmental, and genetic factors. This study determined the pattern, clinical presentations, risk factors, and determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with liver disease admitted into a tertiary hospital in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, over a 5-year period; 2013–2017. Methods: Case records of patients admitted into the medical wards of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife, with a diagnosis of liver disease were retrieved and information relating to demographics, risk factors, and types of liver disease as well as the results of relevant investigations, duration, and outcome of admission was extracted. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 and analyzed using frequencies and percentages which are presented in tabular form. Results: A total of 5,155 patients were admitted, liver diseases accounted for 324 (6.3%) of medical admissions within the period, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounting for 52.8%, liver cirrhosis (LC) – 27.2%, acute hepatitis – 10.38%, metastatic liver disease – 4.1%, autoimmune hepatitis – 1.7%, DILI – 0.7%, liver abscess – 1%, abdominal tuberculosis – 1.4%, and unclassified etiology – 1.76%. A total of 139 cases were HBsAg positive, 64 took alcohol, 67 took herbs, while 57 took self-prescribed medications. Mortality among all patients admitted through the emergency compared with the medical clinic was 81.9% versus 18.1%. Elevated creatinine, coagulation disorder, hypoalbuminemia, and hypokalemia contributed to mortality. Conclusion: HCC and LC accounted for the majority of liver diseases in hospitalized patients with high mortality among all patients admitted through the emergency department and those with elevated creatinine, coagulopathy, and low potassium and albumin. Major etiologic factors were hepatitis B virus infection, alcohol, and self-prescribed medications.
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